Like reading and writing, math is a skill. For this reason, I limited the treatment of mathematics in this book to simple lists of concepts to master. In general, it’s a good idea to teach the concepts as they might be encountered in the real world–in other words, to present scenarios involving the process, then having the student create the equation that can be used to find the solution. Also that math does not have to be repetitive; no need to do long homework assignments. Learn the concept and move on, then revisit all sections several more times over a period of several years to commit them to memory.

Fortunately, math is more standardized than most subjects and most people won’t have trouble finding a comprehensive curriculum to follow. (If you are homeschooling, I recommend the nice video series from the Khan Academy, a free online school. For younger students, the hilarious Life of Fred series is great.)

One more note: If you’re teaching a young homeschooler and want to delay the more advanced arithmetic for a while, that shouldn’t be a major problem. However, math thinking does cause growth in places of the brain that other types of thinking do not. Instead of having your kids do long, repetitive math worksheets, I recommend math games and math puzzles, particularly those that emphasize spacial thinking. I didn’t realize how greatly those areas of my brain had been neglected after years of writing for a living till I took an aptitude test and totally failed the spacial thinking section. Don’t limit your kids’ options to become a mathematics professor, physicist or engineer.

**Basic Arithmetic and Measurement Skills**

Counting by twos, tens, fives and twenties

Understanding place value (ones, tens, hundreds, etc.)

Naming shapes, including three-dimensional shapes (cubes, cones, cylinders and spheres)

Adding and subtracting

Rounding

Identifying Roman numerals

Multiplying (finding the product of two factors) and dividing (finding an unknown factor)

Using arrays

Understanding sets

Solving one-variable equations and inequalities

Adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing fractions

Adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimals

Adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing negative numbers

Understanding integers, whole numbers, negative numbers, positive numbers

Solving story problems

Understanding absolute value

Using coordinate planes

Reading bar graphs, line graphs and grids

Measuring, including memorization of important conversions

**Common English Measures**

**Distance**

Inches (in) – 12 in = 1 ft

Feet (ft) – 3 ft = 1 yd

Yards (yd) – 1760 yd = 1 mi

Miles (mi) – 1 mi = 5280 ft

**Weight**

Ounces (oz) – 16 oz = 1 lb

Pounds (lb) – 2000 lb = 1 t

Tons (t) – 1 t = 2000 lb

**Volume**

Teaspoons (tsp) – 3 tsp = 1 tbsp

Tablespoons (tbsp) – 1 tbsp = 3 tsp

Fluid ounces (fl oz) – 8 fl oz = 1 cup

Cups (c) – 2 cups = 1 pt

Pints (pt) – 2pt = 1qt, 8 pt = 1 gal

Quarts (qt) – 4 qt = 1 gal

Gallons (gal) – 2 gal = 1 peck

**Common Metric Measures**

**Distance**

Millimeter (mm) – 1000 mm = 1 m

Centimeter (cm) – 100 cm = 1 m

Meter (m) – base unit (1)

Kilometer (km) – 1000 m = 1 km

**Weight**

Milligrams (mg) – 1000 mg = 1 g

Grams (g) – base unit (1)

Kilograms (kg) – 1000g = 1 kg, 1000 kg = 1 t

Metric ton (t) – 1000 kg = 1 t

**Volume**

Milliliters (mL) – 1000 mL = 1 L

Liters (L) – base unit (1)

**Universal Measures of Time**

Seconds (sec) – 60 sec = 1 min

Minutes (min) – 60 min = 1 hr

Hours (hr) – 24 hr = 1 day

Days – 7 days = 1 wk

Weeks (wk) – (about) 4 wk = 1 mo

Months (mo) – 12 mo = 1 yr

Years (yr) – 1 yr = 365 days

Decades – 1 decade = 10 yr

Centuries – 1 century = 100 yr

Millennium – 1 millennium = 1000 yr

**Metric Prefixes**

Nano – 1/1000000000

Micro – 1/1000000

Milli – 1/1000

Centi – 1/100

Deci – 1/10

**Temperature Conversion (Centigrade/Fahrenheit)**

C = (F – 32) X 5/9

F = (C X 9/5) + 32

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